I agree that everyone should find the eating lifestyle that works best for them. On my part, keto reversed my high blood sugar & associated side effects that are now none existent. I also find it funny that many say there’s little research around Keto or Paleo type of diet yet before the discovery of grain & sugar out diets were pretty much meat, nuts, greens & depending on availability fruit. I come from East Africa & both my grandfather & great grand father only ate organic meat & vegetables….never touched carbohydrates, they both lived beyond 100 years …..This is the norm in most African families….. cancer, HBP & Diabetes seem to have surfaced with the introduction of sugar & refined carbs in our diets ……

"I was on Reddit one day when I saw a weight loss transformation of a guy who had lost 140 pounds in a year using the keto diet. I started reading the keto subReddit and began researching the science behind it. After years of using upcoming events as excuses not to diet, I chose to start keto in January when the holidays were over and there weren’t any weddings or parties for the next few months. 

Day 8: I'm still struggling to find a morning beverage that I enjoy and that keeps me full, so I try flavorless collagen protein powder with my coffee plus a splash of macadamia nut milk. It still isn't the same as a French press with cream, but it's a win! On the solid-food front, I'm starting to get a little grossed out about all the meat I've eaten in the past week. It's more than I'd normally eat in three times as long. Lamb burgers, turkey lettuce-wrap tacos, chicken salads. My digestion is off (even though I take probiotics every morning), so Dr. Axe recommends his Keto Digest supplements at lunch. They contain fat-digesting enzymes to help break down the extra fat and protein that my body isn't used to consuming, and it helps.
Bulk buy and cook. If you’re someone who doesn’t like to spend a lot of time in the kitchen, this is the best of both worlds. Buying your food at bulk (specifically from wholesalers) can reduce the cost per pound tremendously. Plus, you can make ahead food (bulk cook chicken thighs for pre-made meat, or cook entire meals) that are used as leftovers, so you spend less time cooking.
As ketones levels rise in the body, the cells of heart, brain and muscles begin to use them for fuel. And once the body is using ketones as a main fuel source, there are some profound and positive health effects.  Ketogenic diets are very effective for correcting cellular metabolic dysfunction. The high blood sugar of diabetes gets reversed, the seizures of epilepsy can be calmed, Alzheimers and Parkinsons symptoms are alleviated, extra weight can be lost, joint pain is diminished and so on.  In other words, the ketogenic diet is not a “fad.” It is a potent regulator of metabolic derangement, and when formulated and implemented correctly, it can be extremely effective at reversing all kinds of health problems. (See this paper.)

Keep in mind, however, that consuming too much protein at any given meal can decrease your levels of ketosis. To mitigate this effect, you can divide your protein intake into equal amounts throughout your meals. If you workout, then consider consuming more protein after and/or before your workouts because this protein is less likely to spike insulin levels and reduce ketone levels.
In addition to the seaweed and glycogen carbohydrates mentioned above, the Inuit can access many plant sources. The stomach contents of caribou contain a large quantity of partially digested lichens and plants, which the Inuit once considered a delicacy. They also harvested reindeer moss and other lichens directly. The extended daylight of the arctic summer led to a profusion of plant life, and they harvested plant parts including berries, roots and stems, as well as mushrooms. They preserved some gathered plant life to eat during winter, often by dipping it in seal fat.[71]
Carbohydrate: Most of what determines how ketogenic a diet is will depend on how much carbohydrate is eaten, as well the individual's metabolism and activity level. A diet of less than 50 or 60 grams of net (effective) carbohydrate per day is generally ketogenic. Some sources say to consume no more than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day, while others cite up to 50 grams, and many recommend no more than 5 percent of calories from carbs. However, athletes and people with healthy metabolisms may be able to eat 100 or more grams of net carbohydrate in a day and maintain a desired level of ketosis. At the same time, an older sedentary person with Type 2 diabetes may have to eat less than 30 net grams to achieve the same level.

I’ve not been extremely diligent on tracking my calories, carbohydrates and macros. I’m a pretty accurate ball park guesser though.😬 I resist eating anything that is not keto friendly. I count carbs in my mind and try to stay below 20 grams a day. I carefully ballpark my calories per day keeping around 1400 to 1700. I walk 4 to 5 miles every single day,no matter what. I only drink water and black coffee, nothing else. I NEVER snack. I eat twice per day starting at high noon and eat my dinner/final meal sometime between 6:00 or 8:00pm. Which makes my intermittent fasting 16/18 - 6/8. I’ve tested my blood for ketosis a few times and about half of the time I’m in ketosis... but rarely does a week go by that I don’t lose some weight, so I’ve quit testing for ketosis.

Meat – like grass-fed selections – and fresh veggies are more expensive than most processed or fast foods. What you spend on Keto-friendly foods will vary with your choices of protein source and quality. You can select less-expensive, leaner cuts of meat and fatten them up with some oil. Buying less-exotic, in-season veggies will help keep you within budget.

Early studies reported high success rates: in one study in 1925, 60% of patients became seizure-free, and another 35% of patients had a 50% reduction in seizure frequency. These studies generally examined a cohort of patients recently treated by the physician (what is known as a retrospective study) and selected patients who had successfully maintained the dietary restrictions. However, these studies are difficult to compare to modern trials. One reason is that these older trials suffered from selection bias, as they excluded patients who were unable to start or maintain the diet and thereby selected from patients who would generate better results. In an attempt to control for this bias, modern study design prefers a prospective cohort (the patients in the study are chosen before therapy begins) in which the results are presented for all patients regardless of whether they started or completed the treatment (known as intent-to-treat analysis).[18]
Transformation Tuesday::: I wore shorts once last year, i felt good because they were a size 16 I think, down from a size 20. My size 2 shorts in the after picture are now too big. About a year between these pictures and at least 100lbs. I was working out, but @coach_jmo had just had the food conversation with me. It was vacation time and I was sad about not being beach ready in a little over 3 months. 😂 I was still making bad choices to help me cope with my weight gain from Postpartum depression and anxiety. I was still eating horribly, with cheat weekends and lots of pizza. 😂 I still thought exercising was enough to help me reach my goals. Working out 7 days a week with my trainer and a Ketogenic diet have changed my life. Down from a size 18/20 to a Size 0/2, over 130 pounds, and over 115 inches. 🎉🙌🎊
I love your site but your note about Diabetic Ketoacidosis is completely wrong. DKA is not something that happens because your body produces too many ketones. It is something that happens when your body produces too many ketones, and you don’t have any insulin in your system. As long as a Type 1 Diabetic takes insulin they will NOT go into DKA. Especially since DKA requires high ketones, high sugars, and low insulin.

Cyclical ketogenic diet: The Bulletproof Diet falls into this category. You eat high fat, low carb (less than 50 grams of net carbs a day) five to six days of the week. On day seven, you up your carb intake to roughly 150 grams, during what’s called a carb refeed day. Carb cycling this way helps you avoid the negative effects some people experience when they restrict carbs long term, like thyroid issues, fatigue and dry eyes.[10] [11] Full ketosis isn’t for everyone, and adding carbs such as sweet potatoes, squash, and white rice one day a week keeps your body systems that need some amount of carbs functioning properly.
I’ve been eating Keto for about a year and a half…my sister started it for weight loss & health issues, she has since lost 60-70 lbs…at that time I was suffering from hypoglycemia, stage 3 adrenal fatigue & leaky gut…b/c of all that I had gain 20 lbs…I decided to give Keto a try, and in all honesty, it was the only thing that gave me success! I had even spent $500 on a diabetic nutritionist, the meal plan phased in whole grains which only made me gain more weight! I went to a functional dr. to get treated for adrenal fatigue, etc. and the supplements in combination with a Keto diet I was able to lose the 20 lbs and then some…I’ve gone through stalls, but when I reworked what I was doing I was able to get back to the weight I was when I got married 22 years ago…a big mistake people make with Keto is ingesting fat b/c it’s a “high fat” way of eating…if weight loss is a goal, you only take in dietary fat after you’ve lost the body fat…if you ingest too much dietary fat, your body burns that first, then body fat…another mistake is eating when you’re not hungry…there’s nothing that says you have to have 3 square meals a day, or even 2 for that matter…I eat 2 meals a day, breakfast and dinner, the size of the meal depends on how hungry I am…listen to your body, that’s the most important part…there are some awesome cookbooks out there by Maria Emmerich, I honestly don’t feel deprived at all, and I have a huge sweet tooth!!! Diet Doctor is another good resource for Keto info…I wish I could stuff my face is a huge slice of pizza (dairy is another issue for me) but knowing how I’ll feel the next day, it just isn’t worth it for me or my health!
Following the ketogenic diet and achieving ketosis may be beneficial if you’re living with type 2 diabetes and need to manage your symptoms. Limiting carbohydrate intake is crucial with type 2 diabetes because too many carbs can increase blood glucose levels, which can damage blood vessels and lead to vision problems, kidney problems, and nerve problems.
Even though intracellular metabolism and activation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels appear to be necessary for some signaling effects of FAs, a great amount of the FA responses in the ventromedial hypothalamic neurons are mediated by interactions with fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36. Translocase is a FA transporter/receptor that activates downstream signaling even in the absence of intracellular metabolism (Moulle et al., 2014).
The hypothalamus is the brain's main center responsible for hunger/satiety (H/S) control. In the theory that Mayer proposed more than 60 years ago, he assigned a central role to glucose levels in the H/S control: the so-called “glucostatic theory” (Mayer, 1955). Mayer suggested that depletion of carbohydrate availability leads to hunger, and the hypothalamic centers with receptors sensitive to glucose levels might be involved in the short-term regulation of energy intake (Mayer, 1955). The “feeding center” in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), according to the glucostatic theory, reacts to the between-meal fall of blood glucose and stimulates food intake. The LHA contains glucose-inhibited neurons that are stimulated by hypoglycemia, a process crucial to mediating the hyperphagia normally induced by hypoglycemia. The subsequent post-prandial hyperglycemia activates the “satiety center” in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), which contains glucose-excited neurons and inhibits both “feeding center” and food intake.
Although many hypotheses have been put forward to explain how the ketogenic diet works, it remains a mystery. Disproven hypotheses include systemic acidosis (high levels of acid in the blood), electrolyte changes and hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose).[18] Although many biochemical changes are known to occur in the brain of a patient on the ketogenic diet, it is not known which of these has an anticonvulsant effect. The lack of understanding in this area is similar to the situation with many anticonvulsant drugs.[55]
Ketone esters: These are the raw ketones (in this case, beta-hydroxybutryate) that are not bound to any other compound. These exogenous ketones can be utilized quicker and potentially have a better effect at raising blood ketone levels as your body doesn’t have to cleave the BHB from any other compound. The downside? They typically have a foul taste and can cause an upset stomach.
A short-lived increase in seizure frequency may occur during illness or if ketone levels fluctuate. The diet may be modified if seizure frequency remains high, or the child is losing weight.[18] Loss of seizure-control may come from unexpected sources. Even "sugar-free" food can contain carbohydrates such as maltodextrin, sorbitol, starch and fructose. The sorbitol content of suntan lotion and other skincare products may be high enough for some to be absorbed through the skin and thus negate ketosis.[30]
It's worth noting that the review focused on low-carbohydrate diets, which are not always ketogenic. To be sure, there are balanced ways to adopt the ketogenic diet, and it can beneficial to some. In addition to its proven weight-loss effects that can be especially helpful for obese people, the diet is also a proven treatment for children with epilepsy. That's because the state of ketosis produces a natural chemical called decanoic acid, which can reduce seizures.

Infants and patients fed via a gastrostomy tube can also be given a ketogenic diet. Parents make up a prescribed powdered formula, such as KetoCal, into a liquid feed.[18] Gastrostomy feeding avoids any issues with palatability, and bottle-fed infants readily accept the ketogenic formula.[30] Some studies have found this liquid feed to be more efficacious and associated with lower total cholesterol than a solid ketogenic diet.[3] KetoCal is a nutritionally complete food containing milk protein and is supplemented with amino acids, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and trace elements. It is used to administer the 4:1 ratio classic ketogenic diet in children over one year. The formula is available in both 3:1 and 4:1 ratios, either unflavoured or in an artificially sweetened vanilla flavour and is suitable for tube or oral feeding.[50] Other formula products include KetoVolve[51] and Ketonia.[52] Alternatively, a liquid ketogenic diet may be produced by combining Ross Carbohydrate Free soy formula with Microlipid and Polycose.[52]
What it boils down to is this: You need to know yourself and your self-control. “If you’re able to have a higher-carb day that includes healthy carbs and be able to get back on track the next day, then it might work for you,” Devine says. “But if you’re somebody who kind of loses control when you get around sweet foods, and one donut means the entire case of donuts, you’re going to have trouble with it.”
Thanks for all of the great info!! I have Hashimoto’s and would really like to try a high fat/low carb diet. You mentioned that this might not be a good option for people with thyroid issues. How do you recommend I modify my diet to lose weight taking into consideration the Hashimoto’s. I take Westhroid, a non-synthetic thyroid supplement to help with my sluggish thyroid. Thanks so much for any advice you can give me. :)
Type I diabetes is usually treated by insulin injections, that replace the body’s own insulin production. In Type I diabetics, lowering dietary carbohydrate consumption can reduce the need to inject insulin to lower blood sugar101. However, because they do not release any insulin Type I diabetics can be at risk of developing a complication called “Diabetic Ketoacidosis” (DKA). DKA occurs because, alongside its effects on glucose, insulin has other effects in the body. Insulin normally inhibits the release of fat (lipolysis) from adipose tissue. In Type I diabetics, the lack of insulin can lead to high levels of lypolysis, high levels of fatty acids in the blood, this then drives rapid and uncontrolled liver ketone production. The symptoms of DKA are weakness, confusion and deep gasping breathing. In order to avoid developing DKA while following a ketogenic diet, Type I diabetics should seek medical supervision and closely monitor their glucose and ketone levels if reducing their dietary carbohydrate intake. 
Yancy WS Jr, Westman EC, McDuffie JR, Grambow SC, Jeffreys AS, Bolton J, Chalecki A, Oddone EZ, “A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a lowfat diet for weight loss,” Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jan 25;170(2):136-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20101008?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=2.
Ken, not 100% sure I understand your question but if you're asking if you should take any more supplements through out the week, it's hard to know without getting some blood testing done. If you want to go into detail, book a consult at bengreenfieldfitness.com/coaching and choose 20 or 60 mins and we'll get you scheduled. If you want to know specifically about fueling for your runs, have a read through this: https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/2013/07/what-…
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Interesting article and I applaud you challenging any way of eating as so many of us are like sheep these days. However, for me, it’s really all about sugar. For example, the significant results of lowering sugar intake on type two diabetics should not be ignored. Look up Dr David Unwin’s success in the UK where many of his patients are in remission and, off their medication. I started a low sugar way of eating (diet is not a good word for anyone) Two years ago. I lost 20 kgs and have kept it off. I’ve looked at the science, I’ve looked at the manipulative history and current strategies of food manufacturers, but moreover, I look at my own results. Like you, I want my own ‘truth.’ We need to take individual responsibility in all areas of our lives to do that, instead of jumping on the next wagon of craze.

Carbohydrate: Most of what determines how ketogenic a diet is will depend on how much carbohydrate is eaten, as well the individual's metabolism and activity level. A diet of less than 50 or 60 grams of net (effective) carbohydrate per day is generally ketogenic. Some sources say to consume no more than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day, while others cite up to 50 grams, and many recommend no more than 5 percent of calories from carbs. However, athletes and people with healthy metabolisms may be able to eat 100 or more grams of net carbohydrate in a day and maintain a desired level of ketosis. At the same time, an older sedentary person with Type 2 diabetes may have to eat less than 30 net grams to achieve the same level.
So in the end, I ordered 1kg of pure BHB Magnesium from a supplier in China and I will be developing my own Ketone product with 30 servings as a lower price than all the competitors, and with more Magnesium, and Calcium in it than Sodium so that it tastes the best and actually helps with weight loss (which Magnesium is proven to do at the right amount). What the companies don’t tell you is that actually Sodium BHB is the cheapest, then Calcium BHB and then Magnesium BHB to source so I would be interested in knowing if what you wrote is actually true or just an excuse to make the product cheaper. Probably a mix of both.
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