Once inside the mitochondrion, the dominant way that the bound fatty acids are used as fuel in cells is through β-oxidation, which cleaves two carbons off of the acyl-CoA molecule in every cycle to form acetyl-CoA.[24] Acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle, where it undergoes an aldol condensation with oxaloacetate to form citric acid; citric acid then enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), which harvests a very high energy yield per carbon in the original fatty acid.[25][26]
Achieving ketosis is a pretty straightforward, but it can seem complicated and confusing with all of the information out there.4If you want to learn more about ketosis and the scientific process around it, you can visit a very in-depth discussion about on Dr. Peter Attia’s website. Here’s the bottom line on what you need to do, ordered in levels of importance:
Fortunately, Drs. Kevin Hall and Juen Guo had the same burning question. In 2017, they analyzed the data and published a meta-analysis of controlled feeding studies that compared diets of equal calorie and protein content with variations in carbohydrate and fat content. [24] By filtering out the diet data in this way, the researchers could finally find out whether restricting carbs or limiting calories is more important when it comes to weight loss.
The concentration of ketone bodies may vary depending on diet, exercise, degree of metabolic adaptation and genetic factors. Ketosis can be induced when a ketogenic diet is followed for more than 3 days.[34] This induced ketosis is sometimes called nutritional ketosis.[35] This table shows the concentrations typically seen under different conditions[1]
Hello, I am doing IF 16:8 & my eating window is in the evening. I’m confused as to what to eat during those 8 hours. I’ve been eating 1 meal & a snack. Is this enough? I’ve been doing Keto dieting for 6 months. Initially lost 5 #. (Realize it was water #) Now I weigh more than I ever have, as of today!! Drink loads of water, eat healthy fats, mod protein & limited carbs, non processed. Can you help? Thanks!!
He died in April this year due to a massive heart attack. He was only 38. Autopsy report showed severely advanced coronary artery disease and almost complete heart block. The medical examiner said that this had to of started in his early 20s to be this advanced and that it's very hereditary. (at that time he ate HORRID and smoked, was very very overweight, stressed to the max etc). She stressed that everyone in his family be checked including children.
I was diagnosed in April with type 2 diabetes. I have learned A LOT about carbs and how they affect a diabetic’s blood sugar. They are the enemy! I looked at the Keto diet and adapted parts of it to my dietary needs. I try to limit my carb intake to 20 grams a day, far less than what the American Diabetes Association recommends. I experimented eating a variety of carbs like oatmeal, pasta, fresh fruits, yogurt and all spike my blood glucose readings well above 30 points. Learning what I have I think it’s prudent for anyone to manage their carb intake closely, especially if they are NOT physically active. Exercise has a huge in pact in reducing blood glucose. My goal is to manage my diabetes without drugs instead with diet and exercise.
I've been researching the ketogenic diet for quite awhile so when I started this book, I was a little skeptical that there was anything else I could learn. I was wrong. Craig and Maria have done a wonderful job breaking down the science in a way that's easy to understand. Their knowledge and experience show you how to be successful on keto and how to break through plateaus so you can achieve your health goals. This isn't a "this is how keto works for me and my body so it should work for you too" book, it's a "this is how the human body works, how keto affects the human body, and how you can be successful with keto all based on science". There are also chapters dedicated to discussing the benefits of keto and how to heal your body - it's not all about weight loss. I knew keto was a good way to eat, but I had no idea how many syndromes, diseases, and even cancers that can be reversed through a clean keto diet.

Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when ketone levels become too high and poison the body. This condition is more common in people with type 1 diabetes because their bodies don’t make insulin. In the event that their ketone level rises, their bodies are unable to produce insulin to slow down this production. If left untreated, this condition can lead to a diabetic coma or death.
Ketosis is deliberately induced by use of a ketogenic diet as a medical intervention in cases of intractable epilepsy.[12] Other uses of low-carbohydrate diets remain controversial.[14][15] Carbohydrate deprivation to the point of ketosis has been argued to have both negative[16] and positive effects on health.[17][18] Ketosis can also be induced following periods of fasting (starvation),[19] and after consumption of ketogenic fats (such as medium chain triglycerides[citation needed]) or exogenous ketones.[20]
To conclude, athletes may consider adopting a ketogenic diet in the hope of improving endurance, well being and body composition but unless the diet is well formulated they risk causing fatigue, under fuelling and ultimately compromising performance. There is currently insufficient scientific research to definitively support the use of ketogenic diet for athletes to improve performance, although beneficial effects on fat oxidation, body composition and well-being have been described. However, the anecdotal reports of success and the increasing number of pro and elite athletes claiming to be experimenting with the ketogenic diet is compelling. Furthermore, people who are training and competing at a sub elite level may have a greater net benefit from the effects of the diet on recovery, wellness and body composition that may outweigh the loss of top end power resulting from the diet. Finally, it is unknown if there would be a beneficial effect of following the ketogenic diet but adding in strategic carbohydrate refeeds around more intense training and competition periods. Given the popularity of the ketogenic diet, one hopes these questions will be addressed in the near future. 
That’s what motivates most people to go keto. “It’s popular because in most cases it can produce very easy and effective weight loss — that’s the primary reason why people start it,” says Los Angeles–based Franziska Spritzler, RD, the founder of Low Carb Dietitian. There are some other researched benefits beyond weight loss, including possibly acting as a mood stabilizer in those with bipolar disorder (per a very small study in Neurocase) and lessening epileptic seizures (according to a study published in May 2016 in Epilepsy & Behavior).
However, there is one caveat when it comes to weight loss. In response to a calorie deficit, the body will typically burn some of its muscle mass for fuel by using a process called gluconeogenesis. As a result, many people will lose muscle along with the fat when they diet. Luckily, there is a way to preserve muscle mass, even in the midst of extreme caloric deficits.

What would your advice be to a high raw vegan who wants to try an HRV keto diet? The supps you recommended above look vegan, but aren’t the results based on those of omnis? Would they work the same way on vegans? Also I heard you mention in the recent Keto Summit that SE Asians need a little more carb and I happen to be one. I’m a petite 39-YO female and I’ve been raw for the past 11 years. I have been practicing intermittent fasting in the last 7 years and try to eat only twice a day. Up to how many grams of carbs can I consume to get into ketosis?

Hunger and satiety are two important mechanisms involved in body weight regulation. Even though humans can regulate food intake by will, there are systems within the central nervous system (CNS) that regulate food intake and energy expenditure. This complex network, whose control center is spread over different brain areas, receives information from adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and from blood and peripheral sensory receptors. The actions of the brain's hunger/satiety centers are influenced by nutrients, hormones and other signaling molecules. Ketone bodies are the major source of energy in the periods of fasting and/or carbohydrate shortage and might play a role in food intake control.

Moreover, in the above study of Sumithran et al. (2013), ketosis maintains post-prandial secretion of CCK as previously demonstrated by other researchers (Chearskul et al., 2008). Note that the orexigenic effect of BHB is blocked by transection of the common hepatic branch of the vagus nerve (Langhans et al., 1985). The hepatic branch contains fibers from the proximal small intestine, stomach and pancreas, and is sensitive to CCK (Horn and Friedman, 2004); ghrelin signals to brain are also transmitted via vagus nerve (Habara et al., 2014). Thus, the effects of ketosis on these two appetite-related hormones could be one of the many factors related to the effects of such nutritional regimen on food control.
This doesn’t mean that you can never have some of your favorite foods again.  Once you get past the adaptation phase and you have tested that you are in Ketosis, you can start experimenting with Keto versions of the foods you don't want to give up. Here are a few simple Keto recipes to start with. If you're looking for ready-to-eat Keto-friendly options, check out Country Archer Meat Sticks, Cuvee Coffee and FBOMB nut butters.
I have been on this Keto diet 2weeks now,have lost almost 8lbs,am strictly following this diet,the food is great,I have the cookbook,I don’t feel starved,nor deprived,am hanging in there,because according to this cookbook,your body doesn’t start to be a fat burning machine until day 30,is this correct?however,my clothes are loose on me,so I feel I am in keytosis as we speak
If you’ve cleared the approach with your healthcare team and weight loss is your ultimate goal, know that keto cycling won’t be nearly as effective as keto, Devine points out. “It can halt your weight loss by taking those days off because during that time you’re not going to be burning any fat and you could be putting more on,” she says. Kieffer adds that the results of keto cycling are never as dramatic as when the body is kept in a constant state of ketosis.
Now, I’m in low carb recovery, I need to re-lose some of what I’ve gained in the carb rebound, and to do it I’m just counting calories. I’m only 5’4, so I have a goal of 1620 per day, with the understanding that I am not going to hit that goal every day, because sometimes I will eat out or eat a donut that’s brought in at the office. I finally got tired of saying “I can’t have that” or lying and saying I didn’t even want it. Now, if I want to eat something, I eat it. I can adjust my other decisions for the day if necessary to accommodate a treat, or not, it just depends on how I feel. Some days I feel motivated to lose weight, and some days I feel motivated to eat ice cream, and the one desire does not have to destroy the other. I finally feel like I can enjoy the goodness of all of the food groups again, and I am steadily losing an average of 1 lb per week – no longer miserable.

-Nervous System Damage: It’s been shown that patients with neuropathy whose after-meal glucose readings were above the diabetic threshold sustained damage to their large nerve fibers. Even neuropathy patients whose glucose readings remained well within the normal range showed damage to their small nerve fibers. Studies have shown that within any blood sugar range, the higher the glucose, the greater the damage to nerve fibers.

Acetone is a molecule that results from the breakdown of acetoacetate. Acetone is commonly referred to as a ‘waste product’ as it is less readily used as energy compared to BHB (although some studies have shown that acetone can be oxidised as a fuel4. That said, some evidence suggests that it is responsible for the antiseizure effects of ketogenic diets so in may not be completely inert. At low levels acetone in the breath corresponds well to levels of ketones in the blood 12,13, however this is not the case as blood BHB levels increase 13 and if the increase is rapid, such as with exogenous ketone consumption11. 
The researchers observed that the mice in the group that received ketone supplements experienced greater weight loss than the animals in the third group that received similar caloric intake. Latest findings on ketones could have vital implications for an alternative to low-carb and high-fat keto diets to help you lose weight and reduce body fat, including that stubborn belly fat. Read - Keto diet for weight loss: Is the low-carb ketogenic eating plan safe for you?
That said, I think the biggest changes are the result of me dropping the sugars and breads. Tracking my eating and being more conscious about my foods has made a difference. I definitely plan to keep on this track for a while and slowly work towards a fuller keto-adapted diet/body. I’m not going with the “all-in” that some recommend, cutting out all artificial sweeteners and such, though I have limited them. I’m not really tempted to indulge in the sweets that have been tempting in the past.

These findings fall in line with another meta-analysis on 13 randomized controlled trials that compared low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. The researchers found that, after six months, subjects who consumed less than 60 grams of carbohydrates per day had an average weight loss that was 8.8 pounds greater than the subjects on low-fat diets. At one year, the difference had fallen to 2.3 lb (which is consistent with what was found in the meta-analysis conducted by the Brazilian researchers).


Jump up ^ Fumagalli M, Moltke I, Grarup N, Racimo F, Bjerregaard P, Jørgensen ME, Korneliussen TS, Gerbault P, Skotte L, Linneberg A, Christensen C, Brandslund I, Jørgensen T, Huerta-Sánchez E, Schmidt EB, Pedersen O, Hansen T, Albrechtsen A, Nielsen R (September 2015). "Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation". Science. 349 (6254): 1343–7. Bibcode:2015Sci...349.1343F. doi:10.1126/science.aab2319. hdl:10044/1/43212. PMID 26383953.
But low-carb diets don’t work because of how people seem to think they work — more specifically, through something called the “insulin hypothesis,” which says that removing carbohydrates from your diet stabilizes insulin and blood sugar levels, subsequently increasing your metabolism and reducing your hunger. This hypothesis has failed several studies. A review study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2017 reported it as “carefully controlled inpatient feeding studies whose results failed to support key [carbohydrate-insulin] model predictions.” Sad.
Fairly recently, the diet was introduced as a weight-loss diet by an Italian professor of surgery, Dr. Gianfranco Cappello of Sapienza University in Rome. In his 2012 study, about 19,000 dieters received a high-fat liquid diet via a feeding tube inserted down the nose. The study showed an average weight loss of more than 20 pounds in participants, most of whom kept it off for at least a year. The researchers reported a few minor side effects, like fatigue.
Bulk buy and cook. If you’re someone who doesn’t like to spend a lot of time in the kitchen, this is the best of both worlds. Buying your food at bulk (specifically from wholesalers) can reduce the cost per pound tremendously. Plus, you can make ahead food (bulk cook chicken thighs for pre-made meat, or cook entire meals) that are used as leftovers, so you spend less time cooking.

Yes, the carb backloading approach can definitely help. Honestly I have SO MANY ARTICLES here on the site about sleep. Just go ahead and use the search bar for sleep and you'll find a plethora of info. For targeted sleep advice, I'd be happy to help you via a personal one-on-one consult. Just go to https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/coaching. and then choose a 20 or 60 minute consult, whichever you'd prefer. I can schedule ASAP after you get that.
Thanks for sharing this information and your experience. I started Keto because I was having severe digestive issues where nearly everything seemed to make my tummy hurt. I saw that alot of the recipes and choices were gluten free since low carb, so I figured I’d try it and hopef5find some foods I COULD eat! I did strict for the first few weeks til I could see how it worked out and did find great relief in that there was nearly ZERO pain and bloating. Now I don’t do KETO, but I continue to substitute alot in the same manner… and I cook breads made with almond and coconut flour especially. I keep low sugar intake, but not nearly zero, and I try to keep within healthier carbs so no more pasta for instance, but maybe a little rice or sweet potatoes etc. I did start having hormone symptoms when doing strict keto and getting very tired also. I lost about 14 lbs right off then gained back about 5. I am starting to feel like I’m finding a good balance that works for me now, and I am thankful to have opened up some new nutrition ideas that my body seems to like better! I will say, I joined one fb group for KETOers, but found it to be very stressful as lots of snotty comments and attitudes… maybe isn’t that way in the entire KETO community, but was very off-putting! Through the years, I hold to my same theory on health and wellness : LISTEN TO YOUR BODY!
The reason purity matters is that C17 is a byproduct of most MCT oil production processes, and it, along with C6, is a major cause of throat burning and gut irritation. Most MCT’s on the market are manufactured via chemical and solvent based refining, which involves using chemicals like hexane and different enzymes and combustion chemicals, such as sodium methoxide. But ideally, you should get an MCT oil that is made using triple steam distillation in a non-oxygen atmosphere to avoid lipid oxidation and create a purer end-product.
Atkins Nutritionals filed chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2005, a year after the doctor died after falling on an icy New York City sidewalk. Still, Atkins had a long-lasting impact on the dietary landscape in America. “Sugar free” and “low carb” labels never left the snack aisle. People still fell back on the idea that to lose weight, one simply had to cut carbs. But all the while, obesity rates climbed from 30 percent up to 39 percent of the country, priming the stage for another diet “revolution.”
I have been in low carb for years ( due to being hypoglycemic )also, I had a stroke at 40 for reasons unknown and read about Keto for traumatic brain injuries. I decided as I’ve gotten older and the weight just seems to attach to me form merely walking into the kitchen that I would try Keto for a few reason, sounder sleep, more energy, less hunger and cravings and of course weight loss. Well I have expirenced most of theses effects . But weight loss hasn’t been one. Unless I go into the much talked about fasting( at least 16 hours a day I haven’t expirenced any weight loss , only weight gain) I was told I’m doing it wrong, my movies are off, I must be miscalculating my fats, carbs, etc.. no . I down loaded apps to track. Read everything I can find, take supplements only fasting has worked. It’s easier on Keto because I’m not really hungry as much, but now I’m counting the hours I fast and eat and tracking them to the minute to make sure I stay within range. It’s all like slavery to food no matter how you dice it up. I have to watch carbs because of hypoglycemia but even with that I was gaining weight. Sure I can eat carbs but the blood sugar highs and lows are dangerous and actually make me binge eat in order to get my sugar levels back up. So I’m kinda stuck with what do I do to maintain my sugar levels and weight and yet enjoy life. It’s seems to be a no win situation .

I was Keto for 6 months and did not lose a pound ! Couldn’t figure out WHY – I was doing 36hr fast, staying in my macros etc… So after 6 months of NO progress I switched it up , and lost 11 pounds in 1 month. AND that was with adding in more carbs, grains, fruit etc.. I think Keto works for some and those that are very large will initially drop as they would on any diet plan cutting out the junk. It wasn’t for me .
I’m glad I came across this post. One of my friends was advised to do Keto by her doctor due to insulin resistance and was talking about how much weight she has lost in a very short time period and I thought maybe it would be worthwhile to try myself for at least a jumpstart to weight loss. The more I read about the diet, the more concerned I was that eating that much fat would be detrimental to me because my cholesterol is slightly higher than normal, my family has a history of heart disease, and I had my gallbladder removed two years ago. It seems that after reading this post, my concerns may have been warranted. I’m glad to see something to balance out all of the positive press that keto seems to be receiving these days and give an alternate point of view. I’ll keep looking for a balanced diet that will work for me. Thank you.

I'm officially at the half way mark in my 2-week #ketogenicdiet, and I'm just now feeling like a complete human. The first 3-4 days I was seriously drained (#CardioIsHardio is putting it lightly), which is what I've heard to expect in the beginning. But this weekend, I hit up my go-to #barre studio, did some speed intervals on the bike, and got in some #kettlebell training, too. Ready to tackle this last week of #keto...then eat all the . Jk, kinda. #keto360 #healthyfats #ketosis
Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) presents infrequently, but can occur with acute alcohol intoxication, most often following a binge in alcoholics with acute or chronic liver or pancreatic disorders. Alcoholic ketoacidosis occurs more frequently following methanol or ethylene glycol intoxication than following intoxication with uncontaminated ethanol.[11]

First, decide if you need to check ketones.  Amy Berger of Tuit Nutrition has a great post here to help you decide.  If, after reading that, you still want to check your ketone levels, there are several ways to check them. You can buy Bayer ketone stix, and check the levels of ketones in your urine. Or you can use a blood ketone meter.  The Precision Xtra has been the one to use until just recently. The problem is that this meter is hard to find, as the manufacturer Abbott keeps changing the name. The strips are even harder to find and buy.


Day 2: There's a bagel shop less than a block from my office. I pass it every single day and never really think anything of it. Well, not today! The smell of the freshly baked everything bagels—and was that veggie cream cheese I smelled?—was wafting out the door as I walked by extra quickly. (Though I found out later that there is a way to have bread and still stay in ketosis.) 

Slowly fulfilling my dream of becoming a walking, talking weight loss ad 🙌🏼😆🐍 . . . . . . . . #weightlossjourney #ketotransformation #lowcarb #loveyourself #beforeandafter #beachbody #keto #ketodiet #jeans #weightloss #hardwork #motivation #throwback #workinprogress #workout #workoutmotivation #fit #fitness #fitgirl #fitnessmotivation #fitspo #nocaptionneeded #nocarbs @ruthmayketo
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